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SAT文化词条(二)
2010-8-25 9:09:10  紫铭教育

4, Pilgrim Fathers

The Pilgrim Fathers(also the Pilgrims) are the 102 English people who sailed to America on the Mayflower (see in picture) in 1620. Their group included 35 Puritans whose aim was to create a safe religious community in the New World. The Pilgrims probably landed at Plymouth Rock, and they established Plymouth Colony.

 

清教徒前辈移民1620年乘坐“五月花”号船到达美洲的102名英国人。这些人当中有35名清教徒,他们的目标是在新大陆创建一个不受侵扰的宗教社会。清教徒前辈移民可能在普利茅斯海岸巨砾处登陆,他们建立了普利茅斯殖民地。

 

5Jean Jacques Rousseau

 

Jean Jacques Rousseau, (1712--1778) was a philosopher, writer, and composer of the Enlightenment, whose political philosophy influenced the French Revolution and the development of liberal, conservative, and socialist theory. With his Confessions and other writings, he invented modern autobiography and encouraged a new focus on the building of subjectivity that bore fruit in the work of thinkers as diverse as Hegel and Freud. His novel Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse was one of the best-selling fictional works of the eighteenth century and of great importance to the development of romanticism. He also made important contributions to music as a theorist and a composer, and was reburied alongside other French national heroes in the Panthéon in Paris, sixteen years after his death, in 1794.

 

让·雅克·卢梭(1712--1778),启蒙运动时期的主要思想家、作家、作曲家。他的政治理论影响了法国大革命,推动了自由,保守以及社会主义理论的发展。他的《忏悔录》和其他作品开创了现代自传体写作,使人们开始关注主观因素的建立,之后,不同的作品和思想家发展成熟了这个理论,如黑格尔和弗洛伊德。他的小说《新爱洛绮思》是18世纪最畅销的小说之一,极大的影响了浪漫主义的发展。作为作曲家和理论家,他对音乐的贡献也不可磨灭。1794年,他60岁时去世,安葬于法国民族英雄墓地——巴黎先贤祠。

 

6, Noble Savage

 

Noble savage is a person belonging to a tribe or group that lives in a simple way, in close contact with the land, animal, etc. the description was first used by 18th writers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who thought that such people were naturally good and honest because they were free from the bad influences of European society.

The attributes of the "noble savage" often included: Living in harmony with Nature, Generosity and selflessness, Innocence, Inability to lie, fidelity, Physical health, Disdain of luxury, Moral courage, "Natural" intelligence or innate, untutored wisdom

 

高尚的野蛮人生活简朴,与土地和动物等密切接触的部落或群体成员。最先使用这一说法的是18世纪的作家,如让—雅克·卢梭。他们认为,这些人本性善良,没有受到欧洲社会的不良影响。

高尚野蛮人的特征包括:与自然和谐相处,慷慨,无自私之心,淳朴,不会说谎,忠诚,身体健康,排斥奢华,具备道德的力量,拥有自然的、未受外部世界影响的智慧。SAT