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SAT文化词条(三)
2009-12-01 17:35:45  紫铭教育

7, Stone Age Britain

 

The earliest archaeological remains found in Britain are tools thought to have been made before 12 000 BC, when Britain was still attached to the rest of Europe. No human bones from this period were found until 1912 when a skull that had characteristics of both humans and apes was found in a gravel pit in Sussex. The skull became known as Piltdown man. From geological evidence it was calculated that the skull belonged to somebody who lived more than two million years ago. Later scientific tests showed that it was not genuine and that the jaw of an ape had been attached with glue to a human skull and then treated to make it look very old. The earliest genuine human bones found in Britain are those of a woman from Swanscombe, Kent, who lived about 325 000 years ago.

 

Most Stone Age remains in Britain are much later and date from after 4000 BC, the Neolithic period. There is evidence of woodland being cleared for farming, and polished stone axes and fragments of pottery have been found (see in picture). The remains of a Stone Age village built about 3100 BC can be seen at Skara Brae in the Orkneys. The houses were buried in sand after a storm in about 2000 BC and only found when another storm in 1850 blew the sand away.

Other Stone Age remains include long barrows, piles of earth up to 300 feet long, found mainly in England and Wales. They were used as burial mounds and sometimes have several rooms inside containing human and animal remains and pottery. Henges, circular areas surrounded by a ditch and a bank, may have been built as meeting places. One of the most impressive is at Avebury. It is large enough to contain the modern village of Avebury. A stone circle made of upright megaliths (=very large stones) up to 20 feet (6 metres) high was added inside the henge in about 2400 BC, at the end of the Stone Age. The henge at Britain’s best-known prehistoric monument, Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain (see in picture), also dates from the Stone Age, though the circles of huge stones inside it date from about 2100 BC, the beginning of the Bronze Age.

石器时代的英国

考古学者在英国发现的最早的古代遗迹是石器,据认定,是公元前12 000年以前制作的,那时不列颠仍然和欧洲的其他部分连接在一起。直到1912年才发现了那个时期的人体骨骼,在萨塞克斯的一个沙砾坑中,找到了同时具有人和猿特征的头盖骨,这就是皮尔当人。根据其地质学特征推算,这个头盖骨属于生活在200多万年以前的人。后来,经科学鉴定表明这是伪造的,是把猿的下巴骨用胶粘在人的头盖骨上,然后经过处理,使其显得非常古老。在英国发现的最早的真人骨骼,是肯特郡斯旺兹肯姆325 000年前的一个女人的骨骼。

英国大多数时器时代的遗迹所属的年代要晚得多,是公元前4000年之后的新石器时代。有证据表明当时的人把林地砍伐后用于农耕,还发现了打磨过的石斧和陶器的碎片。在奥克尼群岛的斯卡拉布雷,可以看到石器时代一个村落的遗址,该村落大约是在公元前3100年建造的。公元前2000年前后,一场沙暴后房屋被沙子掩埋了起来,在1850年另一场风暴把沙子刮走后才被发现。

其他石器时代的遗迹还有长形土石墓葬,是长长的土堆,长达300英尺,主要见于英格兰和威尔士。这些用来做墓冢,有时里面有几个墓室,存放人和动物的遗体及陶器。圆形石构造是由沟渠和土堆围绕而成,可能是作为聚会地而修建的。最为壮观的一个石圈是在埃夫伯里,其规模之大足以容得下现代的埃夫伯里村。石圈由高高直立的巨石组成,高达20英尺(6米),是大约公元前2400年石器时代末期,在圆形石构造中增加进去的。索尔兹伯里平原上的巨石阵,是英国最著名的史前纪念碑。这一圆形石结构也是早在石器时代建造的,但里面的巨石圈大约建于公元前2100年青铜器时代开始时。

 

8Homo sapiens

 

Human beings, or man — Latin: "wise human", are bipedal primates in the family Hominidae. DNA evidence indicates that modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago. Humans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, problem solving and emotion. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the forelimbs (arms) for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species. Humans are distributed worldwide, large populations inhabiting every continent on Earth except Antarctica. The human population on Earth is greater than 6.7 billion.

Like most higher primates, humans are social by nature. Humans are particularly adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression, exchanging of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws, which together form the basis of human society. Humans have a marked appreciation for beauty and aesthetics, which, combined with the desire for self-expression, has led to cultural innovations such as art, writing, literature and music. Humans are notable for their desire to understand and influence the world around them, seeking to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through philosophy, art, science, mythology and religion. This natural curiosity has led to the development of advanced tools and skills; humans are the only species known to build fires, cook their food, clothe themselves; they also manipulate and develop numerous other technologies. Humans pass down their skills and knowledge to the next generations through education.

 

人,或人类,拉丁语称为“智人”,属于人科双足灵长类生物。DNA证据显示现代人起源于两万年前的非洲。人拥有高度发达的大脑,能够进行抽象思考和自省,会使用语言,懂得解决问题,并拥有情感。人的直立身体构造解放了前足,可以使用物体,加之精神能力,使得人类可以比其他物种更好的使用工具。人遍布世界各地,除南极洲之外,各个大洲都有大量人生存。地球上的人数量已超过67亿。

与大多数高级灵长类动物一样,人天生具有社会性。人尤其擅长使用沟通系统进行自我表达,交换意见和组织协同。从家庭到国家,人创造了复杂的社会结构,包括互相合作和竞争的团体。在广泛的社交中,人建立了多种多样的传统、礼节、道德、价值、社会规范和法律,这些形成了人类社会的基础。人对美有明显的喜爱之情,加之自我表现的欲望,形成了众多艺术创新,如美术,写作,文学和音乐。值得一提的是,人有着认识和改变周围世界的欲望。通过哲学,美术,科学,神学和宗教等形式,人试图解释和操纵自然现象。这种天生的好奇心导致了高级工具和技术的发展。人是唯一懂得点火,制作熟食和穿衣的物种。人还掌握并发展了其他很多技术。通过教育,人类把这些技术和知识代代相传。SAT